تصنيف المركبات العضوية تبعاً للمجموعات الوظيفية

Term Formula Prefix Suffix
[[Amine]] R-NH2 amino- -amine
[[Carboxylic acid]] R-C(=O)OH hydrocarboxy- -oic acid
[[Alcohol]] R-OH hydroxy- -ol
[[Aldehyde]] R-C(=O)H -al
[[Ketone]] R-C(=O)-R' keto- -one
[[Ester]] R-C(=O)O-R' ''named according to the parent alcohol and acid, respectively:'' '''alkyl alkanoate'''
[[Ether]] R-O-R' ''named according to the parent alcohols, respectively:'' '''alkylalkylether'''
[[Amide]] R-C(=O)N(-H)-R' ''name according to the parent amine and acid, respectively:'' '''alkyl alkanamide'''
[[Azo]] R-N=N-R'
[[Alkene]] R-CH=CH-R' ''convert the part substituting for '''alk''' in the name of the'' alkane ''into the '''alk''' of the word'' alkene: '''eth'''ane/'''eth'''ene, '''prop'''ane/'''prop'''ene, '''but'''ane/'''but'''ene, ''etc.'' -ene
[[Alkyne]] R-CC-R' ''convert the part substituting for '''alk''' in the name of the'' alkane ''into the '''alk''' of the word'' alkyne: '''eth'''ane/'''eth'''yne, '''prop'''ane/'''prop'''yne, '''but'''ane/'''but'''yne, ''etc.'' -yne
[[Phosphodiester]] R-OP(=O)2O-R'
[[Phenyl]] R-C6H6
[[Pyridyl]] R-C5H5N
[[Nitrile]] R-CN '''alkyl nitrile'''
[[Isonitrile]] R-NC '''alkyl isonitrile'''
[[Isocyanate]] R-NCO '''alkyl isocyanate'''
[[Isothiocyanate]] R-NCS '''alkyl isothiocyanate'''
[[Methyl]] R-CH3 methyl- (''similarly for higher alkyl substituents:'' ethyl, propyl, butyl, ''etc.'')